Shotcrete, a technique for applying concrete conveyed through a hose and pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a surface, is extensively used in Australian construction, particularly in tunneling and mining. This one-pager offers an overview of essential shotcrete equipment, tailored for the Australian construction sector.

1. Shotcrete Machine

  • Types: Dry-mix (Gunite) or Wet-mix
  • Features: The choice between dry and wet mix depends on project requirements. Dry-mix machines suit smaller volume applications, while wet-mix machines are better for larger projects, offering improved control over the mixture.

2. Concrete Mixer

  • Purpose: Prepares the concrete mix before feeding it into the shotcrete machine.
  • Specifications: Selection varies from portable mixers for minor projects to substantial, stationary mixers for extensive operations.

3. Compressor

  • Function: Supplies air pressure necessary for the pneumatic delivery of shotcrete.
  • Key Features: Must have an adequate cubic feet per minute (CFM) rating to ensure a consistent flow of shotcrete.

4. Shotcrete Nozzle

  • Importance: Crucial for controlling the velocity and shape of the shotcrete stream.
  • Variations: Different sizes and shapes are used based on the required thickness and coverage area.

5. Delivery Hose

  • Role: Carries the concrete mix from the machine to the nozzle.
  • Specification: Requires durability and flexibility, typically manufactured from rubber with steel reinforcements.

6. Additional Equipment

  • Rebound Net: Minimizes rebound loss during application.
  • Robotic Arms: Enhance precision and safety in challenging environments.
  • Safety Gear: Essential for operator safety, including helmets, goggles, protective clothing, and respirators.


The success of shotcrete applications in construction largely depends on the correct selection and maintenance of equipment. In Australia, where construction standards and worker safety regulations are stringent, understanding and sourcing the right equipment is key. This guide provides a foundation for identifying the necessary equipment for efficient and safe shotcrete operations in the Australian construction industry.

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Australian Shotcrete Society is a Technical Society of Engineers Australia.