pdf Shotcrete research and practice in Sweden—development over 35 years Popular

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© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK. Used with permission. ABSTRACT: In 1973 a large research project on shotcrete in hard rock tunneling was started by the Royal Swedish Fortifications Administration (FortF) and the Swedish Rock Mechanics Research Foundation (BeFo). That project was also the starting point for me on a long journey through a totally new landscape—the underground. In this paper the development of shotcrete practice in Sweden and its connection to research will be described. In 1973 neither bond testing, rock anchored reinforced shotcrete, fibre reinforced shotcrete or modern accelerators were known. Nor were high speed trains creating considerable loads from under- and overpressure on tunnel linings. The mode of action of shotcrete drains was not explored either. Today there is an increased need for better methods of crack prevention and improved knowledge regarding shotcrete subjected to blasting vibrations and the time-ependent development of material properties in shotcrete.